Applications of Thermodynamics

Paper Code: 
CHY- 403
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

To learn the laws of thermodynamics in understanding homogenous and heterogenous equilibria and the theories and concept of electrochemistry in redox system and cells.

Unit I: 
Thermodynamics: Free Energy Functions

Gibbs and Helmholtz functions, Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A) as thermodynamic quantities, A & G as criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity, their advantages over entropy change, variation of G & A with P, V & T.

Unit II: 
Thermodynamics: Chemical Equilibrium

Equilibrium constant and free energy, thermodynamic derivation of law of mass action. Le Chatelier’s principle,reaction isotherm and reaction isochore- Clapeyron equation and Clausius -Clapeyron equation, applications

Unit III: 
Heterogeneous Equilibria – The Phase Rule

Introduction to phase, component and degree of freedom, derivation of Gibbs phase rule; phase equilibria of one component system-water, CO2 and sulphur system. Phase equilibria of two component system-solid-liquid equilibria, simple eutectic – Bi-Cd, Pb-Ag systems, desilverisation of lead.

Solid solutions: compound formation with congruent melting point (Mg-Zn) and incongruent melting point (NaCl-H2O), (FeCl3 – H2O) and (CuSO4 – H2O) system; freezing mixtures (acetone – dry ice).

Unit IV: 
Electrochemistry I: Equilibrium in Redox System

Types of reversible electrodes – gas-metal ion, metal-metal ion, metal-insoluble salt-anion and redox electrodes; electrode reactions, Nernst equation, EMF of a cell and its measurements, computation of cell EMF, calculation of thermodynamic quantities of cell reactions (G, H & K),derivation of cell E.M.F. and single electrode potential; standard hydrogen electrode- reference electrodes, standard electrode potential, sign conventions, electrochemical series and its significance.

Unit V: 
Electrochemistry II: Electromotive Force

Electrolytic and Galvanic cells: reversible and irreversible cells, conventional representation of electrochemical cells. Concentration cell with and without transport, liquid Junction potential, applications of concentration cell - valency of ions, solubility product, activity coefficient, potentiometric titrations.

Definition of pH and pKa, determination of pH using hydrogen, quinhydrone and glass electrodes and by potentiometric method.

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