Applications of Thermodynamics

Paper Code: 
CHY- 303
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

To learn the basic principles involved in energetics of chemical reactions and role of enthalpy in chemical reactions and the behaviour of electrolytes in solution with the concepts of conductivity measurements.

Unit I: 
Thermodynamics: Free Energy Functions

Gibbs and Helmholtz functions, Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A) as thermodynamic quantities, A & G as criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium and spontaneity, their advantages over entropy change, variation of G & A with P, V & T.

Unit II: 
Thermodynamics: Chemical Equilibrium

Equilibrium constant and free energy, thermodynamic derivation of law of mass action. Le Chatelier’s principle,reaction isotherm and reaction isochore- Clapeyron equation and Clausius -Clapeyron equation, applications.

Unit III: 
Heterogeneous Equilibria – The Phase Rule

Introduction to phase, component and degree of freedom, derivation of Gibbs phase rule; phase equilibria of one component system-water, CO2 and sulphur system.
Phase equilibria of two component system-solid-liquid equilibria, simple eutectic – Bi-Cd, Pb-Ag systems, desilverisation of lead.
Solid solutions: compound formation with congruent melting point (Mg-Zn), (FeCl3 – H2O) and incongruent melting point (NaCl-H2O)and (CuSO4 – H2O) system; freezing mixtures (acetone – dry ice).

Unit IV: 
Electrochemistry I: Equilibrium in Redox System

Types of reversible electrodes – gas-metal ion, metal-metal ion, metal-insoluble salt-anion and redox electrodes; electrode reactions, Nernst equation, EMF of a cell and its measurements, computation of cell EMF, calculation of thermodynamic quantities of cell reactions (∆G, ∆H & K),derivation of cell E.M.F. and single electrode potential; standard hydrogen electrode- reference electrodes, standard electrode potential, sign conventions, electrochemical series and its significance.


Unit V: 
Electrochemistry II: Electromotive Force

Electrolytic and Galvanic cells: reversible and irreversible cells, conventional representation of electrochemical cells.
Concentration cell with and without transport, liquid Junction potential, applications of concentration cell - valency of ions, solubility product, activity coefficient, potentiometric titrations.
Definition of pH and pKa, determination of pH using hydrogen, quinhydrone and glass electrodes and by potentiometric method.

Essential Readings: 
  1. A Text Book of Physical Chemistry; A.S. Negi, S.C.Anand; New Age International (P) Limited, New Delhi, 2002.
  2. The Elements of Physical Chemistry; P.W. Atkins; OxfordUniversity Press, 1996.
  3. Physical Chemistry; Seventh Edition; R.A. Alberty; Wiley Eastern Ltd., Singapore, 1987
  4. Physical Chemistry Through Problems; S.K. Dogra and S.Dogra; Wiley Eastern Ltd, New Delhi, 2001.
  5. Physical Chemistry; G.M. Barrow; International Students Edition; McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1994.



Academic Year: