Biomolecules, Dyes and Spectral Techniques

Paper Code: 
CHY- 502
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

To learn the role of spectroscopy to solve the structure of unknown compounds and making and manipulation of natural products.

Unit I: 
Proteins and Amino Acids

Amino acids: classification, structure and stereochemistry, acid base behaviour, isoelectric point, electrophoresis, preparation and reactions of α-amino acids.

Proteins: peptide linkages, structure and classification of primary, secondary and tertiary proteins and denaturation.

Nucleic acids: introduction, protein synthesis, functions.

Self Study: Structure of nucleic acids, ribonucleosides and ribonucleotides, double helical structure of DNA.

Unit II: 

Classification and nomenclature, monosaccharides, mechanism of osazone formation, interconversion of glucose and fructose, chain lengthening and chain shortening of aldoses, configuration of monosaccharides, erythro and threodiastereomers, conversion of glucose into mannose. formation of glycosides, ethers and esters, determination of ring size of monosaccharides, cyclic structure of D-(+)-glucose : mechanism of mutarotation


Unit III: 
Synthetic Dyes

Colour and constitution (electronic concept), classification of dyes, chemistry and synthesis of methyl orange, congo red, malachite green, crystal violet, phenolphthalein, fluorescein, alizarin and indigo.


Unit IV: 
Ultra violet Spectroscopy

Electromagnetic radiation, quantization of energy, regions of electromagnetic spectrum, Lambert – Beer law, molar absorptivity, different electronic transitions and symmetry rules, effect of solvent on transitions, effect of conjugation, concept of chromophores and auxochromes, bathochromic, hypsochromic, hyperchromic and hypochromic shift; Woodward Fieser rules and its applications on enes, dienes, α,β-unsaturated carbonyls and extended conjugations.


Unit V: 
Infra red Spectroscopy

Molecular vibrations, Hooke’s law, different regions of IR spectrum (finger print and functional group region), selection rules, characteristic intensity and position of IR bands of various functional groups (alkanes, alkenes, alkyl halides, alcohols, ethers, carbonyl compounds, primary and secondary amines, carboxylic acids and its derivatives); effect of solvent and hydrogen bonding.


  1. Organic Chemistry Vol. I & II; Fifth Edition; I.L. Finar; Longman Scientific and Technical, Singapore, 1975.
  2. Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds; Sixth Edition; P.S. Kalsi; New Age International (P) Ltd Publishers, New Delhi, 2004.
Academic Year: