Different States of Matter

Paper Code: 
CHY 113
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

Course Objectives:

This course will enable the students to

  1.  enable the learner to understand state of matter and interchange of states, intermolecular interaction.

Course Outcomes (COs):


Learning outcomes

(at course level)

Learning and teaching strategies



Paper Code

Paper Title


Different States of Matter

The students will be able to –


CO11: calculate different types of velocities (average, root mean square and most probable) for gas molecule

CO12: derive mathematical expression for different properties of gas, liquid and solid and understand their physical significance

CO13: explain the behaviour of real and ideal gas.

CO14: explain structure and application of liquid crystal.

 CO15: apply crystallographic law on simple molecule

CO16: summarize different method of preparation and properties of sol, gel and emulsion.

CO17: describe concept of adsorption and derive different adsorption isotherm.

Interactive Lectures

 • Discussions

• Tutorials

• Problem solving

The oral and written examinations (Scheduled and surprise tests)

•Problem solving exercises

 • Assignments • Quiz

 • Semester End Examinat ion,


Unit I: 
Kinetic Theory of Gases

Concept of pressure and temperature. Nature of distribution of velocities in one, two and three dimensions. Maxwell's distribution of speeds. Kinetic energy distribution in one, two and three dimensions, calculations of average, root mean square and most probable values in each case; Calculation of number of molecules having energy ≥ ε, Principle of equipartition of energy and its application to calculate the classical limit of molar heat capacity of gases. 

Unit II: 
Gaseous State

Collision of gas molecules, collision diameter; collision number and mean free path, frequency of binary collisions (similar and different molecules); wall collision and rate of effusion. Deviation of gases from ideal behaviour; compressibility factor; Andrew's and Amagot's plots; van der Waals equation and its characteristic features. Existence of critical state. Critical constants in terms of van der Waals constants. Law of corresponding states and significance of second virial coefficient. Boyle temperature. Intermolecular forces (Debye, Keesom and London interactions; Lennard-Jones potential, elementary idea).

Unit III: 
Liquid State and Viscosity of Fluids

Nature of the liquid state, (short range order and long range disorder). Vapour pressure, surface tension, surface energy, excess pressure, capillary rise and measurement of surface tension. Work of cohesion and adhesion, spreading of liquid over other surface. Vapour pressure over curved surface. Temperature dependence of surface tension. General features of fluid flow (streamline flow and turbulent flow). Reynold number, nature of viscous drag for streamline motion. Newton's equation, viscosity coefficient. Poiseuille's equation (with derivation), temperature dependence of viscosity, principle of determination of viscosity coefficient of liquids by falling sphere method. Viscosity of gases vs. liquids and kinetic theory of gas viscosity.

Unit IV: 
Solid State

Nature of the solid state, law of constancy of interfacial angles, law of rational indices, Miller indices, seven crystal systems and fourteen Bravias lattices; X-ray diffraction, Bragg’s law, a simple account of rotating crystal method and powder pattern method. Analysis of powder diffraction patterns of NaCl, CsCl and KCl. Defects in crystals. Glasses and liquid crystals.

Unit V: 
Colloidal State and Surface Chemistry
Definition and classification. Solids in liquids (sols): properties- kinetics, optical and electrical; stability of colloids, protective action, Hardy-Schulze law, gold number. 
Liquid in liquids (Emulsions): Types, preparation, and emulsifier. 
Liquids in solids (Gels): Classification, preparation and properties, inhibition; general application of colloids.
Surface chemistry: Sorption at surfaces, physical and chemical adsorption; Freundlich, Langmuir and Gibbs adsorption isotherms; Factors effecting adsorption, applications of adsorption.
Essential Readings: 
  • A TextBook of Physical Chemistry; Second edition; A.S. Negi, S.C. Anand; New Age International (P) Limited, New Delhi, 2007.
  • Elements of Physical Chemistry; Seventh International Edition. P.W. Atkins, J. Paula; Oxford, India 2017. 
  • Elements of Physical Chemistry; Seventh Edition. P.W. Atkins, J. Paula; Oxford University Press, New York, 2016.
  • Physical Chemistry; Fourth Edition; R.A. Alberty; Wiley Eastern Ltd., Singapore, 2004.
  • University General Chemistry; C.N.R. Rao; Laxmi Publications., New Delhi, 2015.
  • Physical Chemistry Through Problems; S.K. Dogra and S.Dogra; Second Edition;New Age International Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 2001.
  • Physical Chemistry;Third edition;Gilbert W. Castellan; Addison Wesley PublishingCompany, USA, 1983.
  • Physical Chemistry; Third edition;Gilbert W. Castellan; Narosa, 2004.
Academic Year: