Inorganic Chemistry I

Paper Code: 
CHY 111
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

Course Objectives:

This course will enable the students to -

  1. provide an in-depth knowledge about different types of bonding in main group elements.
  2. acquaint the students with the concept of hybridization and geometry of covalent molecules, shapes of atomic and molecular orbitals.

Course Outcomes (COs):


Learning outcomes

(at course level)

Learning and teaching strategies



Paper Code

Paper Title







Inorganic Chemistry






The students will be able to –


CO1: explain scientific theory of atoms and concept of wave function and quantum numbers

CO2: calculate the radius ratio of ionic molecules and determine the ionic structures, apply the concept of Born-Haber cycle in predicting the lattice energy, ionization energy and stability of the ionic compounds.

CO3: predict physical and chemical characteristics of elements in various groups and periods according to ionic size, charge, etc. and position in periodic table.

CO4: describe the various types of hybridization Develop a comprehensive understanding of various ecological processes and environmental issues


Class lectures


Group discussions

Model Study

Question preparation  Subjective type

Long answer

Short answer

Objective type

Multiple choice questions

One answer/two answer type questions

Assertion and reasoning

The oral and written examinations (Scheduled and surprise tests)

Closed-book and open book tests

Problem solving exercises

Assignments Quiz

Semester End Examination




Unit I: 
Atomic Structure

Bohr’s theory to hydrogen-like atoms and ions; spectrum of hydrogen atom. Quantum numbers. Introduction to the concept of atomic orbitals; shapes, radial and angular probability diagrams of s, p and d orbitals (qualitative idea). Many electron atoms and ions: Pauli’s exclusion principle, Hund’s rule, exchange energy, Aufbau principle and its limitation. Electronic energy level diagram and electronic configurations of hydrogen-like and polyelectronic atoms and ions up to atomic number 30.

Unit II: 
Chemical Periodicity

Periodic table, group trends and periodic trends in physical properties.Classification of elements on the basis of electronic configuration. Modern IUPAC Periodic table. General characteristic of s, p, d and f block elements. Position of hydrogen and noble gases in the periodic table. Effective nuclear charges, screening effects, Slater’s rules, atomic radii, ionic radii (Pauling’s univalent), covalent radii. Ionization potential, electron affinity and electronegativity (Pauling, Mulliken and Allred-Rochow scales) and factors influencing these properties. Inert pair effect. 

Unit III: 
Ionic Bonding

Size effects, radius ratio rules and their limitations. Packing of ions in crystals, ionic compounds of the type AX (ZnS, NaCl, CsCl) and AX2 (CaF2-fluorite) lattice energy, Born–Landéequation and its applications, Born-Haber cycle and its applications. Solvation energy, polarizing power and polarizability, ionic potential,Fajans’ rules. Defects in solids.

Unit IV: 
Covalent Bonding

Lewis structures, formal charge. Valence Bond Theory, directional character of covalent bonds, hybridizations, equivalent and non-equivalent hybrid orbitals, Bent’s rule, VSEPR theory, shapes of molecules and ions containing lone pairs and bond pairs (examples from main groups chemistry), partial ionic character of covalent bonds, bond moment, dipole moment and electronegativity differences. Concept of resonance, resonance energy, resonance structures.

Unit V: 
Other Types of Bonding
Molecular orbital concept of bonding (elementary pictorial approach):sigma and pi-bonds, multiple bonding, MO diagrams of H2, F2, O2, C2, B2, CO, NO, HF, and H2O; bond orders, bond lengths, Walsh Diagram. Coordinate bonding: Lewis acid-base CN-,adducts (examples), double salts and complex salts. 
Hydrogen bonding: effect on the physical properties of compounds of the main group elements.
Metallic bonding: qualitative idea of band theory, conducting, semi conducting and insulating properties with examples from main group elements.
Essential Readings: 
  • Concise Inorganic Chemistry; Fifth Edition; J.D. Lee; Wiley India(P) Ltd, New Delhi, 2008. 
  • Inorganic Chemistry; Seventh International Edition; M. Weller,T. Overton, J. Rourke, F. Armstrong; OxfordUniversity Press, New York, 2018.
Academic Year: