Introduction to Biomolecules

Paper Code: 
CHY 125(B)
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

Course Objectives :

The course aims to enable the learners to understand the basic processes which link the biological systems with the chemical systems and to provide them with the basic knowledge and insight about the three-dimensional (3D) structure of macromolecules (protein and nucleic acids) and the relationship between their structure and function.

Course Outcomes (COs):                                                                                                  


Learning outcomes (at course level)

Learning and teaching strategies

Assessment Strategies

Paper Code

Paper Title

CHY 125(B)

Introduction to Biomolecules

The students will be able to-


CO26-describe the function of several important proteins and relate their function to the structure.

CO27-identify the chemical elements of carbohydrates and the difference between simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. 

CO28-understand the relationship between cellular activities and biological responses. 

CO29-gain the knowledge of cell metabolism, chemical composition, physiochemical and functional organization of organelles.

CO30-understand the different composition and roles of nucleic acids in the cell and their interactions with each other.

CO31-acquire perspectives on contemporary approaches and techniques used in modern cell and molecular biology. 

Interactive lectures







Written test


Google quiz




Semester end examination



Unit I: 
Concept of Cell

Origin of Life: Prokaryotes and eukaryotes, difference between plant and animal cell, hierarchy of molecular organization of living systems.

A brief concept of cell organelles and their functions: nucleus, plasma membrane, chloroplast, Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, ribosomes and mitochondria: ATP Synthesis (substrate level phosphorylation like glycolysis and Kreb’s cycle and  oxidative level phosphorylation).


Unit II: 
Amino Acids & Proteins

Introduction, classification, optical isomerism, chemical properties, acid-base properties- peptide bond formation and properties. Protein structure: Primary, secondary, tertiary & quaternary structures, denaturation of proteins, Ramachandran plot. Determination of Primary Structure - sequencing strategies, N-terminal and C-terminal sequencing.

Synthesis of amino acids by reductive amination, GS-GOGAT system and transamination.

Enzymes: Introduction, classification of enzymes, mechanism of enzyme action, enzyme kinetics, Michaelis – Menten equation and enzyme inhibition.  

Unit III: 

Classification, structure and functions of monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides: Starch, cellulose, glycogen, chitin and pectins.

Glycoconjugates: Proteoglycans, glycoproteins and glycolipids.

Unit IV: 

Structure, sources, nomenclature and functions of lipids, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, classification: Simple, compound and derived lipids (steroids and cholesterol). Synthesis of long chain fatty acids, α-oxidation, β-oxidation.

Unit V: 
Nucleic Acids

Purines and Pyrimidines: Structures of purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleosides and nucleotides.

DNA: Double helical structure of DNA(Watson and Crick model) , types of DNA -A, B, C and Z forms, replication.

RNA: RNA structure and its types- rRNA, mRNA, and tRNA, ribozymes. Differences between DNA & RNA


  • Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry International Edition; Seventh Edition; David L. Nelson and Michael Cox; W.H. Freeman, 2017.
  • Biochemistry; Ninth Edition; L. Stryer; W.H. Freeman and Company, 2019
  • Biochemistry; First Indian Reprint; J. D. Rawn; Tanima Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, 2004.
  • Biochemistry; Fourth Edition; D. Voet; John Wiley and Sons, 2011.
  • Outline of Biochemistry; Fifth Edition; E.E. Conn and P.K. Stumpf; John Wiley and Sons Inc., New Delhi, 2006.


Academic Year: