Some Concepts of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons

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Course Objectives:


This course will enable the students to -

  1. Make the students understand the core concepts of organic chemistry i.e. resonance, hyperconjugation, inductive effect etc. and theirqualitative and quantitative treatment
  2.  Provide an in-depth knowledge about alkanes, alkenes & alkynes and their reactions.


Course Outcomes (COs):



 Learning outcomes

(at course level)

Learning and teaching strategies

Assessment Strategies

Paper Code

                  Paper Title



Some Concepts of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons


The students will be able to –

CO8: explain the different nature and behavior of organic compounds based on fundamental concepts

CO9: identify various organic reaction mechanisms including free radical substitution, electrophilic and nucleophilic addition reactions

CO10: identify different electronic effects, their role and impact on molecules

CO11: to solve problems based on the concept of electronic effect

CO12: illustrate the mechanism of organic reactions on hydrocarbons depending upon the reactants involved.

Interactive Lectures

Discussions, Tutorials


Problem solving


The oral and written      examinations (Scheduled and surprise tests)

Closed-book and open-            book tests

Problem-solving exercises



Semester End Examination


Unit I: 
Basics of Organic Reactions and Alkanes

Pre requisite: Inductive effect, electromeric effect, introduction to hydrocarbons, branched and unbranched alkanes, physical properties, different methods of formation of alkane, conformation of alkanes and cycloalkanes, CFC’S and greenhouse effect.

Chemical Reactions: Types of fission, reactive intermediates, structure and stability of the reaction intermediates(carbocation, carbanion and free radical) energy profile diagram,  hyperconjugation, applications of different electronic effects (inductive effect, electromeric effect, and mesomeric effect).

Alkanes: Reactivity of alkanes- bond dissociation energies, halogenation with special reference to generation of free radicals, reactivity and selectivity.



Unit II: 
Alkenes: Structure and Reactivity

Pre requisite: Hybridization of carbon, cis-trans isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, physical properties.

Structure and bonding in alkenes, heat of hydrogenation; methods of formation – dehydration of alcohols (formation of carbocation, structure and stability), dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halide, relative stability of alkene isomers by Saytzeff’s rule and Hoffmann’s rule; Regioselectivity


Unit III: 
Chemical reaction of alkenes

Mechanism involved in hydrogenation, electrophilic and free radial addition, Markovnikov’s rule, hydroboration oxidation, oxymercuration-reduction, oxidation, ozonolysis, hydration, hydroxylation and oxidation with KMnO4and OsO4



Unit IV: 

Structure and stability of conjugative and cumulative dienes, resonance and molecular orbital structure of allene and 1,3-butadiene; methods of preparation, Diels’ Alder reaction; addition of hydrogen halides to conjugated dienes – 1,4 v/s 1,2 addition (formation, structure and stability of  allylic carbocation and free radicals).



Unit V: 

Pre requisite: Nomenclature, structure and bonding, physical properties, hydroboration-oxidation reaction.

Structure and stability; methods of preparation, acidity of alkynes, chemical reactions, mechanism of electrophilic and nucleophilic addition reactions; reduction of alkynes – catalytic hydrogenation, dissolving metal reduction. 

Self Study : Industrial applications of alkynes.


Essential Readings: 
  • Organic Chemistry; Fourth Edition, Indian Edition; G. Marc Loudon; Oxford University Press, New York,2008.
  • Organic Chemistry; Sixth Edition; G. Marc Loudon, J. Parise; WH Freeman, New York, 2015.
  • Organic Chemistry; Seventh Edition; R. T. Morrison, R. N. Boyd, S.K. Bhattacharjee; Pearson Education India, New Delhi, 2010.


Academic Year: