States of Matter

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Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

Course Objectives:

This course will enable the students to –

  1. Learn about mathematical concepts which will be helpful in chemical derivations
  1. Enhance the knowledge on principles and bulk property of matter.

Course Outcomes (COs):


  Learning outcomes

(at course level)

Learning and teaching strategies

Assessment Strategies

Paper Code

  Paper Title



States of Matter



The students will be able to –

CO13: solve differential and integration problem at various level of derivation in physical chemistry.

CO14: describe physical properties of each state of matter and law related to these states.

CO15: explain the behaviour of real and ideal gas.

CO16: explain structure and application of liquid crystal.

CO17: describe law of crystallography and apply these laws.

CO18: summarize different method of preparation and properties of sol, gel and emulsion.

Interactive Lectures



Reading assignments


Revision in form of interactive quiz (crossword, zig-saw puzzle, match the pair)

The oral and written      examinations (Scheduled and surprise tests)

Closed-book and open - book tests

Problem-solving exercises



Semester End Examination



Unit I: 
Mathematical Concepts

Logarithmic relations, differentiation of simple functions like, xn, ex, log x, rules of differentiation, maxima and minima, linear graphs and calculation of slopes, partial differentiation,integration of some useful/relevant functions.


Unit II: 
Gaseous State

Pre requisite: Gas laws.

Postulates of kinetic theory of gases, deviation from ideal behaviour, van der Waals equation of state. Qualitative discussion of the Maxwell’s distribution of molecular velocities, molecular velocities: Root mean square, average and most probable velocities, collision number, collision frequency, mean free path and collision diameter; liquefaction of gases (based on Joule-Thomson effect).

Critical Phenomena: PV isotherms of real gases, continuity of states, isotherms of van der Waals equation, relationship between critical constants and van der Waals constants, law of corresponding states, reduced equation of states.


Unit III: 
Liquid State

Qualitative treatment of the structure of the liquid state, intermolecular forces, physical properties, vapour pressure, heat of vaporization, Trouton’s rule; surface tension and its measurement by stalagmometer method; viscosity and its measurement by Ostwald’s method, effects of temperature, coefficient of viscosity; application of surface tension and viscosity in determination of chemical constitution.

Liquid crystals: Classification, structure of nematic, smectic and cholestricphases, applications of liquid crystals.


Unit IV: 
Solid State

An introduction to space lattice and unit cell, laws of crystallography – (i) law of constancy of interfacial angles (ii) law of rationality of indices (iii) law of symmetry, symmetry elements in crystals, X-ray diffraction by crystals, derivation of Bragg’s equation, determination of crystal structure by different methods, determination of  crystal structure of NaCl, KCl and CsCl.


Unit V: 
Colloidal State

Pre requisite: Definition and classification.

Solids in liquids (Sols): Properties- kinetics, optical and electrical; stability of colloids, protective action, Hardy-Schulze law, gold number.

Liquid in liquids (Emulsions): Types, preparation and emulsifier.

Liquids in solids (Gels): Classification, preparation and properties, inhibition, general applications of colloids.


Essential Readings: 
  • A Textbook of Physical Chemistry; Second edition, A.S. Negi, S.C. Anand; New Age International (P) Limited, New Delhi, 2007.
  • University General Chemistry; C.N.R. Rao; Laxmi Publications, New Delhi, 2015.
  • Physical Chemistry Through Problems; S.K. Dogra and S.Dogra; Second Edition, New Age International Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 2001.
  • The Chemical Maths Book; Second Edition Steiner, E. Oxford University Press, New York, 2011.


Academic Year: